With the explosive growth of Internet users, the demand for data communication network bandwidth has increas significantly. Emerging By the end of 2000, there were already 29 million Internet domains and still increasing. Digital library, distance learning, e-commerce, video on demand and peer-to-peer sharing all are spawn by these web sites.

Most of the backbone level connections for the Internet are back by AT&T, Worldcom and Sprint with a standard spe of 2.5Gbps. The network infrastructure has serious difficulty in keeping up with the bandwidth demand and that is why 10Gbps, 40Gbps and even 100Gbps are being deploy and develop by the fiber optic equipment manufacturers.

Emerging Internet applications will create:

Even more demand on the bandwidth and switching capabilities of these network systems. With the inception of Web 2.0, more bandwidth-hungry applications which extensively uses graphics, images and video are us. The Internet backbone has to keep up with this demand. Actually many carriers have already upgrad their network to 10Gbps and 40Gbps. (although, 100Gbps remains under development at this moment).

On the technology side, ATM (Asynchronous Transfer Mode) over SONET have been adopt as the primary transport mechanism for broadband traffic. Currently, this traffic is carri on single mode fiber between switching hubs for up to 40Gbps.

However, Emerging the speed of each:

Fiber cannot be increas indefinitely, when the bandwidth requir is more than can be support by a single fiber, multiplexing technology is incorporat into the system such as TDM and WDM.

There are number of promising technologies for fiber optic data communications. But we have to investigate the potentials and limitations of each technology. These technologies include All-Optical Network, WDM and Wavelength Routing technologies.

That day hasn’t arriv yet:

However, because of the many complementary IP v4 technologies. Such as Network Address Translation (NAT) and proxy servers (which in turn run NAT). These technologies not only have help to keep company and other networks more secure. But have also provid the add benefit of rucing the number of public IP addresses ne for communication.

An entire company of 100 computers might need only a single IP address. To provide all external connection requirements. Multiply this by the millions, and you can see where this technology has help to conserve the world’s pool of IP addresses.

For example, let’s take my home-bas business.

It’s not without some sense of shame that I admit there are no less than six devices in my house. That access the Internet. I have more computers than humans in my house. But for all these devices, my house nes only a single IP address: the address assign to my cable modem. All other devices that use this Internet connectivity are assign private IP addresses in the 192.168.x.y range.