There are several known complications that accompany the different types of anaemia.
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They progress from one stage to the other especially if the condition is not treated on time. Therefore, patient should be prevent from contact with people with infection.

Fluid intake should be increas in patients with haemolytic anaemia to increase the viscosity of the blood and also to prevent circulatory stagnation. The patient with aplastic anaemia is highly susceptible to infection because of the lack of leucocytes (White blood cells) which help to fight against infection.

Some of these complications include:

1. Heart failure
2. Angina pectoris
3. Brain damage
4. Cardiomegaly (Enlargement of the heart)
5. Organ infarction (Dead portions on some organs due to poor blood/oxygen supply)

General management of anaemia:

Anaemia is treated according to the cause. The major drugs for the treatment of anaemia include Iron, Vitamin B12 and Folic acid. General nursing care of patient with anaemia. Therefore, patient should be prevent from contact with people with infection.

1. Rest:

Patient should be encouraged to rest adequately since anaemia is accompanied with tiredness on exertion. Should avoid any activity that increases oxygen demand. Can take part in planned activities but should not be stressed to the point of fatigue. Breathlessness or fainting.

2. Oxygen therapy:

Patient should be nurs in Fowler’s position if dyspnoea (difficulty in breathing) is present. Oxygen should be administer if dyspnoea continues while at rest. Transfusion of pack cells may be done to increase the oxygen-carrying capacity of the blood if the case is severe. Therefore, patient should be prevent from contact with people with infection.

3. Nutrition/fluid:

Patient’s diet should be rich in protein, iron, vitamins and folic acid to help improve r blood cells and haemoglobin production. Light and easily digestible diets should be serv in frequent small portions. Therefore, patient should be prevent from contact with people with infection.

Fluid intake should be increas in patients with haemolytic anaemia to increase the viscosity of the blood and also to prevent circulatory stagnation. The patient with aplastic anaemia is highly susceptible to infection because of the lack of leucocytes (White blood cells) which help to fight against infection. Keep proper record of daily fluid intake and output. Therefore, patient should be prevent from contact with people with infection.

4. Observation:

Monitor vital signs regularly. Patient should monitored for signs of confusion which is a sign of cerebral hypoxia. The presence of irregular pulse is an indication of cardiac complication while increased body temperature signifies the presence of infection.

5. Anaemia Physical care:

Patient’s position should be chang every 1-2hrs if on complete rest to prevent b sore. Pressure areas can be protect with soft materials such as sheep skin or sponge rubber. Soap should be avoid and patient should rather be bath in slightly warm water containing sodium bicarbonate to relieve irritation if there itching (usually in haemolytic anaemia). Provide warmth with extra b linens.

Ulceration of the oral mucosa which is a common feature of pernicious anaemia should be reliev with frequent oral hygiene with cool mild alkaline mouth wash.
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Hot spicy foods should be avoid to prevent the ulceration from worsening. Patient should avoid anything capable of causing injury to the oral mucosa.

6. Prevention of infection:

Patient has ruc resistance to infection. Therefore, patient should be prevent from contact with people with infection. People with respiratory tract infection should be restrict from visiting the patient.

The patient with aplastic anaemia is highly susceptible to infection because of the lack of leucocytes (White blood cells) which help to fight against infection. Such a patient should be nurs in revers isolation to minimize his exposure to infection.

7. Health education Anaemia:

Patient and relatives should involve in the management of patient. Patient should taught the early symptoms of infection and advised to seek medical care should there be any. Therefore, patient should be prevent from contact with people with infection.

The importance of balanced diet with iron, folic acid and Vitamin B12 should stressed. Patient with pernicious anaemia should also be told to continue with the maintenance doses of Vit.B12 as prescribed since it would needed for life.